WHO/Sanjit Das
Children outside of a school in India at the border with Bangladesh.
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Tuberculosis

    Overview

    TB is caused by bacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and it most often affects the lungs. TB is spread through the air when people with lung TB cough, sneeze or spit. A person needs to inhale only a few germs to become infected.

    Every year, 10 million people fall ill with tuberculosis (TB). Despite being a preventable and curable disease, 1.5 million people die from TB each year – making it the world’s top infectious killer.

    TB is the leading cause of death of people with HIV and also a major contributor to antimicrobial resistance.

    66顺彩票appMost of the people who fall ill with TB live in low- and middle-income countries, but TB is present all over the world. About half of all people with TB can be found in 8 countries: Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines and South Africa.

    66顺彩票appAbout one-quarter of the world’s population is estimated to be infected by TB bacteria. Only 5-15% of these people will fall ill with active TB disease. The rest have TB infection but are not ill and cannot transmit the disease. Both TB infection and disease are curable using antibiotics.

    Symptoms

    66顺彩票appCommon symptoms of TB disease include:

    • Prolonged cough

    66顺彩票app• Chest pain

    • Weakness or fatigue

    • Weight loss

    66顺彩票app• Fever

    66顺彩票app• Night sweats

    Often, these symptoms will be mild for many months, thus leading to delays in seeking care and increasing the risk of spreading the infection to others. 

    66顺彩票appIf the healthcare provider suspects a patient to have TB disease, they will send the patient for testing. In the case of suspected lung TB disease, patients will be asked to give a sputum sample for testing for TB bacteria. For non-lung TB disease, samples of affected body fluids and tissue can be tested. WHO recommends rapid molecular diagnostic tests as initial tests for people showing signs and symptoms of TB. Other diagnostic tools can include sputum smear microscopy and chest X-rays. 

    With TB infection, a person gets infected with TB bacteria that lie inactive in the body. This infection can develop into TB disease if their immune system weakens. People with TB infection do not show any signs or symptoms of TB. To identify TB infection, healthcare providers will screen at-risk patients to rule out active TB, and they may use a skin or blood test to check for TB infection.

     

    Treatment

    TB disease is curable. It is treated by standard 6 month course of 4 antibiotics. Common drugs include rifampicin and isoniazid. In some cases the TB bacteria does not respond to the standard drugs. In this case, the patient has drug-resistant TB. Treatment for drug-resistant TB is longer and more complex. 

    The course of TB drugs is provided to the patient with information, supervision and support by a health worker or trained volunteer. Without such support, treatment adherence can be difficult. If the treatment is not properly completed, the disease can become drug-resistant and can spread.

    In the case of TB infection (where the patient is infected with TB bacteria but not ill), TB preventive treatment can be given to stop the onset of disease. This treatment uses the same drugs for a shorter time. Recent treatment options have shortened the duration to treatment to only 1 or 3 months, as compared to 6 months in the past. 

     

    58 million

    lives saved

    An estimated 58 million lives were saved through TB diagnosis and treatment between 2000 and 2018

    Learn more

    10 million people

    fell ill with TB

    An estimated 10 million people fell ill with TB worldwide in 2018.

    Learn more

    1.5 million people

    died from TB

    including 251 000 people with HIV. TB remains the world’s top infectious killer.

    Learn more

    World TB Day Online Talk Show

    Publications

    All →
    WHO consolidated guidelines on tuberculosis: module 1: prevention: tuberculosis preventive treatment

     BackgroundAbout one fourth of the world’s population is estimated to be infected with the tuberculosis (TB) bacterium, and about 5–10%...

    WHO operational handbook on tuberculosis: module 1: prevention: tuberculosis preventive treatment

    BackgroundAbout one fourth of the world’s population is estimated to be infected with the tuberculosis (TB) bacterium, and about 5–10% of those...

    Molecular assays intended as initial tests for the diagnosis of pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB and rifampicin resistance in adults and children: rapid communication

    Since the approval by WHO of Xpert® MTB/RIF (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, USA) in 2010, significant additional evidence has been generated on its use as initial...

    Costing Guidelines for Tuberculosis Interventions

    66顺彩票appEstimating the cost of TB interventions is essential for planning, prioritizing and managing the funding of TB services. The best way to estimate the unit...

    Apps

    Global TB data are at your fingertips with this app!

    Global TB Report

    66顺彩票app   |   

    Tool for healthcare workers to manage TB preventive care services

    Prevent TB

    66顺彩票app   |   

    66顺彩票appWHO guidance on TB, organized along cascade of care

    66顺彩票appThe Compendium

    66顺彩票app   |   

    Feature stories

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    October 2017

    Personal Stories from TB Survivors - My Journey fighting TB

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