Rabies is a viral zoonotic disease that causes progressive and fatal inflammation of the brain and spinal cord. Clinically, it has two forms:
- Furious rabies – characterized by hyperactivity and hallucinations.
- Paralytic rabies – characterized by paralysis and coma.
66顺彩票appAlthough fatal once clinical signs appear, rabies is entirely avoidable; vaccines, medicines, and technologies have long been available to prevent people from dying of rabies. Nevertheless, rabies still kills tens of thousands of people each year. Of these cases, approximately 99% are acquired from the bite of an infected dog.
66顺彩票appDog-mediated human rabies can be eliminated by tackling the disease at its source: infected dogs. Making people aware of how to avoid the bites of rabid dogs, to seek treatment when bitten and to vaccinate animals can successfully disrupt the rabies transmission cycle.
66顺彩票appIf you are bitten or scratched by an animal, particularly a dog:
- Wash the wound immediately with soap or detergent.
- Flush the wound thoroughly for about 15 minutes with copious amounts of water.
- Apply an iodine-containing or anti-viral medication to the wound 15 minutes after it has been washed and flushed.
- Avoid applying irritants to the wounds such as chili powder, plant juices, acids and alkalis.
- Avoid covering the wound with dressings or bandages.
- Seek transportation to a health care facility for further assessment and treatment by a healthcare professional.
If possible, safely confine the biting animal and collect information on it and the bite circumstance to provide to the health care professional and public health officer. Keep the biting animal confined and under observation for 10 days.
Rabies is estimated to cause 59 000 human deaths annually in over 150 countries, with 95% of cases occurring in Africa and Asia. Due to widespread underreporting and uncertain estimates, it is likely that this number is a gross underestimate of the true burden of disease. 99% of rabies cases are dog-mediated and the burden of disease is disproportionally borne by rural poor populations, with approximately half of cases attributable to children under 15.