66顺彩票appMonkeypox virus is an orthopoxvirus that causes a disease in humans with symptoms similar, but less severe, to those previously seen in smallpox. While smallpox was eradicated in 1980, monkeypox continues to occur in countries of Central and West Africa.
Monkeypox is a zoonosis, i.e. a disease that is transmitted from animals to humans. Cases are often found close to tropical rainforests where there is frequent contact with animals that carry the virus. Evidence of monkeypox virus infection has been found in many animals including rope squirrels, tree squirrels, Gambian poached rats, dormice, different species of monkeys and others.
Human-to-human transmission of the virus is limited, with the longest documented chain of transmission being six generations, i.e. meaning that the last person to be infected in this chain of transmission was six links away from the original sick person. The virus can be transmitted through contact with bodily fluids, lesions on the skin or on internal mucosal surfaces, such as in the mouth or throat, respiratory droplets and contaminated objects.
Detection of viral DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the preferred laboratory test for monkeypox, given its accuracy and sensitivity. For this, the best diagnostic specimens are directly from the rash – skin, fluid, or crusts, or biopsy where feasible. Antigen and antibody detection methods may not be useful as they do not distinguish between orthopoxviruses.
Monkeypox presents with fever, an extensive characteristic rash and usually swollen lymph nodes. It is important to distinguish monkeypox from other illnesses such as chickenpox, measles, bacterial skin infections, scabies, syphilis, and medication-associated allergies.
The incubation period of monkeypox is can range from 5 to 21 days. The febrile stage of illness usually lasts 1 to 3 days with symptoms including fever, intense headache, lymphadenopathy (swelling of the lymph nodes), back pain, myalgia (muscle ache), and an intense asthenia (lack of energy). The febrile stage is followed by the skin eruption stage, lasting for 2 to 4 weeks. Lesions evolve from macules (lesions with a flat base) to papules (raised firm painful lesions) to vesicles (filled with clear fluid) to pustules (filled with pus), followed by scabs or crusts.
The proportion of patients who die has varied between 0 and 11 % in documented cases and has been higher among young children.
The preferred laboratory test for monkeypox is detection of viral DNA by PCR. The best diagnostic specimens are directly from the rash – skin, fluid, or crusts, or biopsy where feasible. Antigen and antibody detection methods may not be useful as they do not distinguish between orthopoxviruse
Treatment of monkeypox patients is supportive dependent on the symptoms. Various compounds that may be effective against monkeypox virus infection are being developed and tested.
Prevention and control of human monkeypox rely on raising awareness in communities and educating health workers to prevent infection and stop transmission.
Most human monkeypox infections result from a primary, animal-to-human, transmission. Unprotected contact with sick or dead animals should be avoided, and all foods containing animal meat or parts need to be properly cooked before eating.
66顺彩票appClose unprotected contact with infected people or contaminated materials should be avoided. Gloves and other personal protective clothing and equipment should be worn while taking care of the sick, whether in a health facility or in the home.
66顺彩票appPopulations have become more susceptible to monkeypox as a result of the termination of routine smallpox vaccination which offered some cross-protection in the past. Family and community members, health workers and laboratory personnel who were vaccinated against smallpox in childhood may have some remaining protection against monkeypox.
66顺彩票appVaccination against smallpox with first generation vaccinia-virus based smallpox vaccine was shown to be 85% effective in preventing monkeypox in the past. First generation vaccines are no longer available to the general public following global smallpox eradication. Scientific studies are underway to assess newer vaccinia vaccines for prevention and control of monkeypox.
66顺彩票appFifteen countries on four continents have reported confirmed cases of monkeypox in humans.
5 to 21 days
66顺彩票appThe incubation period of monkeypox is usually from 6 to 13 days, but can range from 5 to 21 days.More about monkeypox
1 to 11%
of ill may die
Monkeypox infection can lead to death in up to one tenth of cases.More about monkeypox