Psychoactive drugs are substances that, when taken in or administered into one's system, affect mental processes, e.g. perception, consciousness, cognition or affect. ‘Psychoactive drugs’ belong to a broader category of “psychoactive substances” that include also alcohol and nicotine. ‘Psychoactive’ does not necessarily imply dependence-producing, and in common parlance, the term is often left unstated, as in ‘drug use’, ‘substance use’ or ‘substance abuse’. The use of psychoactive drugs without medical supervision is associated with significant health risks and can lead to the development of drug use disorders. Drug use disorders, particularly when untreated, increase morbidity and mortality risks for individuals, can trigger substantial suffering and lead to impairment in personal, family, social, educational, occupational or other important areas of functioning. Drug use disorders are associated with significant costs to society due to lost productivity, premature mortality, increased health care expenditure, and costs related to criminal justice, social welfare, and other social consequences.
About 270 million people (or about 6 per cent of global adult population) had used drugs in the previous year and about 35 million people are estimated to be suffering from drug use disorders (harmful pattern of drug use or drug dependence). It is estimated that about 0.5 million death annually attributable to drug use with about 350 thousand male and 150 thousand female deaths. Opioid-related deaths, largely due to synthetic opioids, have changed the mortality trends in some high-income countries causing so called “opioid crisis”. More than 42 million years of healthy life loss (DALY) were attributable to drug use in 2017 what is about 1.3% of the global burden of disease. It is estimated that there are almost 11 million people who inject drugs, of whom 1.4 million live with HIV and 5.6 million with hepatitis C.
Production, distribution, sale or non-medical use of many psychoactive drugs is either controlled or prohibited outside legally sanctioned channels by law. Psychoactive drugs have different degrees of restriction of availability, depending on their risks to health and therapeutic usefulness, and classified according to a hierarchy of schedules at both national and international level. At international level, there are international drug conventions concerned with the control of production and distribution of psychoactive drugs: the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, amended by a 1972 Protocol; the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances; the 1988 Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.
The world drug problem is being considered as both public health issue as well as safety and security issue with different balance between these domains of the problem in different jurisdictions.
In April 2016, the thirtieth Special Session of the UN General Assembly (UNGASS) reviewed the progress in the implementation of the 2009 Political Declaration and Plan of Action on International Cooperation Towards an Integrated and Balanced Strategy to Counter the World Drug Problem and assessed the achievements and challenges. In resolution S-30/1, the General Assembly adopted the outcome document of the special session on the world drug problem entitled “Our joint commitment to effectively addressing and countering the world drug problem”. The UNGASS marked a shift in the overall drug policy discourse to highlight the public health and human rights dimensions of the world drug problem and to achieve a better balance between supply reduction and public health measures.
Target 3.5 of UN Sustainable Development Goal 3 sets out a commitment by governments to strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse. Several other targets are also of particular relevance to drug policy-related health issues, especially target 3.3, referring to ending the AIDS epidemic and combating viral hepatitis; target 3.4, on preventing and treating noncommunicable diseases and promoting mental health; target 3.8, on achieving universal health coverage; and target 3.b, with its reference to providing access to affordable essential medicines.
Since its creation, WHO has played an important role within the UN system in addressing the world drug problem. WHO activities to counter the world drug problem can be presented under the following main dimensions: Prevention of drug use and reduction of vulnerability and risks; Treatment and care of people with drug use disorders; Prevention and management of the harms associated with drug use; Access to controlled medicines; Monitoring and evaluation.
270 million people
have used drugs in the previous year
35 million people
66顺彩票appare estimated to be suffering from drug use disorders
Only 50% countries
66顺彩票apphave methadone available for maintenance treatment of opioid dependenceATLAS-SU