PAHO / J.E. Cogan
The man with the orange shirt was once sick with dengue and as a result he is now more aware of the causes of the disease. He takes care that there is no standing water in the tires of his workshop so that no one else gets sick.
? Credits

Dengue and severe dengue

    Overview

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection that is common in warm, tropical climates. Infection is caused by any one of four closely related dengue viruses (called serotypes) and these can lead to a wide spectrum of symptoms, including some which are extremely mild (unnoticeable) to those that may require medical intervention and hospitalization. In severe cases, fatalities can occur. There is no treatment for the infection itself but the symptoms that a patient experiences can be managed.

    Earlier this year, WHO listed dengue as a potential threat among ten diseases for 2019 and current outbreaks in many countries confirm this observation. Dengue epidemics tend to have seasonal patterns, with transmission often peaking . There are several factors contributing to this increase and they include high mosquito population levels, susceptibility to circulating serotypes, favourable , precipitation and humidity, all of which affect the reproduction and feeding patterns of mosquito populations, as well as the dengue virus incubation period. Lack of proactive control interventions and staff are some of the other challenges.

     

    Symptoms

    Dengue is a self-limiting febrile illness with symptoms ranging from asymptomatic to severe. Symptoms of dengue may be observed around 4–10 days after the bite of an infected mosquito. Common symptoms are like that of the flu, with patients experiencing: 

    • fever 
    • headaches 
    • pain behind the eyes 
    • muscle and joint pain 
    • nausea/vomiting 
    • rash 
    • fatigue. 

    As the disease progresses, patients can also suffer from respiratory distress, bleeding from the nose and gums and have a rapid drop in blood pressure leading to shock. If left unmanaged, this can lead to death. Sound case management of dengue in hospitals has helped to reduce case fatality rates to less than 1% in most affected countries. 

    Dengue is increasing at a higher rate than any other communicable disease, with 400% increase over 13 years (2000–2013). Annual dengue incidence is estimated to be in the order of 100 million symptomatic cases a year, with another ~300 million asymptomatic infections. The greatest burden is seen in Asia (75%) followed by Latin America and Africa.  

    Treatment

    66顺彩票appThere are no specific vaccines or antiviral treatments against dengue fever. Use of paracetamol to bring down the fever is indicated. Aspirin and related non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIs) such as ibuprofen should be avoided. 

    Recovery from infection by one dengue virus provides lifelong immunity against that particular virus serotype. However, this immunity confers only partial and transient protection against subsequent infection by the other three serotypes of the virus. Evidence points to the fact that sequential infection increases the risk of developing severe dengue. The time interval between infections and the particular viral sequence of infections may also be of importance. 

    66顺彩票appThe best way to prevent infection is to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes during daytime. Mosquitoes that commonly transmit dengue virus often live in and around the home and in the garden. People should: 

    • wear clothing that covers the body well (especially legs and feet);  
    • keep mosquitoes out of the house by placing insect screens over doors and windows;  
    • apply insect repellents according to the manufacturer’s label instructions;  
    • sleep under a net, even during the day; and 
    • take extra precaution to prevent transmission if a family member is infected by avoiding mosquito bites. 

    Our work

    Publications

    All →
    A Toolkit for national dengue burden estimation
    The aim of this toolkit is to guide countries on how to best estimate their current burden of dengue by combining existing data from dengue surveillance...
    Peer-reviewed-publi-cover-w

    Research has been conducted on interventions to control dengue transmission and respond to outbreaks. A summary of the available evidence will help inform...

    Global vector control response 2017–2030

    The Global vector control response 2017–2030 (GVCR) provides a new strategy to strengthen vector control worldwide through increased capacity, improved...

     

     

    Photo gallery

    66顺彩票appRelated health topics

    Contact


    Dr Raman Velayudhan
     
    Scientist

    Ashok Moloo

    Information officer

    Telephone: +41 22 791 16 37
    Mobile phone: +41 79 540 50 86

    963彩票开户 677彩票开户 7072彩票开户 66顺彩票总代理 7073彩票地址 689彩票邀请码 7073彩票网址 7073彩票登录 8炫彩彩票app 9188彩票代理